PC Plus HelpDesk - issue 217
|This month, Paul Grosse gives you more insight into
some of the topics dealt with in HelpDesk and HelpDesk
From the pages of HelpDesk, we look at:
- Web Statistics without cgi-scripts; and,
- Voting without cgi-scripts.
From HelpDesk Extra, we look at:
- Network Proxy Server Hardware;
- Drive Partitions;
- Software Packages;
- Operating System;
- Network Cards;
- Proxy Server;
- URL Filtering;
- Network Addressable Storage;
- Network Time Server;
- Webserver; and,
- Log Analysis and System Administration:
- Squid Log Analyser;
- Info Center; and,
Web Statistics without cgi-scripts
If you don't have access to webserver statistics for
your website but do have a permanently-on connection to
the Internet, you can collect your own statistics very
simply. All you need to do is to run a webserver on your
own machine - storing an insignificant image - and then
have it displayed on some part of your web page. By doing
this, the image will be downloaded by any browser that
downloads images - ie most of them although you will not
capture browsers such as links or those set up for blind
people - and the details in your webserver log will hold
The details you will have are the ones that they want
to send you and if their browser is configured to send
false information, you will have to put up with that as
anybody would. However, most people don't know how to
modify the information on their browser so you will get a
representative set of data from this.
Ideally, you should have an insignificant image (might
be just a line or block or even a completely transparent
.gif file) that is part of the page you want to track.
Put this in a directory of its own and you are part of
the way there.
Now, all you need to do is to get a webserver on your
system and the easiest one is Apache which currently runs
around 67 percent of the world's websites.
- free, so it is written by people who:
- like writing computer code
- are not doing it because they are the
cheapest programmers around
- do not feel that they are being exploited
by a big company making big bucks out of
- open source so any bugs
- are found quickly by the biggest group of
programmers on the planet
- are not hidden by some company that wants
to make its product look better than it
- ... and
- the programmers who write it know that
their programming abilities will be
scrutinised by people all over the planet
and are therefore more likely to be
careful by knowing that any mistakes will
not be hidden by corporate proprietry
- any patches or workarounds are sorted out
- popular - it has a large support network so:
- if you have any problems, there are
already people who have had the same
problem and had it sorted out for them
- not the most popular target for Internet attacks
- In your access log, you will see many
failed attacks aimed at IIS systems on
Windows machines. If you are running your
server on a Linux box, the attacks fail
on two accounts. That is not to say that
Apache running on a Linux box is not
immune, just that it is not currently the
target for a lot of attacks.
Once Apache is installed, all you have to do is change
the httpd.conf file so that it knows where your webroot
is and what to listen for (most of the rest of it is
already configured for you although it is worth reading
through it just to make sure - again, the answers to any
questions are most likely already on the Interent for
you). One additional change is to the type of access log
Apache stores. In httpd.conf, there is a line which you
need to change to...
CustomLog logs/access.log combined
if your logs are to be stored in a subdirectory called
[ServerRoot]\logs (on Windows systems or
[ServerRoot]/logs on a Linux system).
Once it is configured, start the server and then test
it by running a browser and typing
in the address bar. If all is okay, (certainly as far
as delivering the image is concerned), you should see it
in the browser window. If you haven't got 'localhost'
defined in your hosts file, you could just type
On your web page, you need to have your IP address and
the path from your webroot. Suppose your server root (in
a Windows machine) is C:\Program Files\Apache
Group\Apache2\, your web root (relative to that) is
\htdocs, your image is called img.png and your IP address
(as accessible from the Internet) is 18.104.22.168. In your
webpage, you should have the following...
width="16" height="16" Alt="Home
With your image in the page and your server up and
running, all you have to do is to configure your firewall
to allow port 80 (that is http) in from the Internet and
you can start collecting that data. Note that you are
doing nothing more than collecting the same data that
everybody else does - you are not hacking into anybody's
system. This data is sometimes used to provide
browser-specific webpages on some servers so that if you
have one of the more esoteric browsers, you cannot use
their site unless you prefer text only content that is
three months out of date.
To test out your page as it is on the Internet, you
might find that you cannot type in its URL and see your
image. If this is the case, it is because your browser is
pointing back at a machine on your Internet interface. To
get around this, you can do one of several things:
- go to a friend's house and look at the page on
- use another connection on one of your machines
(so that you have the broadband connection going
to your webserver and another machine - possibly
with a dial-up connection - going out via a
different route. Make sure that you disconnect
from your LAN the dial-up machine (or whatever
method you are using to get out) or it will both
defeat the object of the game and also allow
access bypassing your firewall. You will also
have to reconfigure the browser on that machine
so that it goes out by a means other than your
LAN connection - Tools/Internet Options ....
- use a proxy. Go into Google
and look for proxy browsers. Kallahar's Place is
a good starting point. It will let you do this by
going into Google and asking it to translate your
page for you - if you have an English page, ask
it to translate from German to English and it
will fail on all (most) words, leaving them as
they are. I say most because when I tried this, I
have a subdirectory called /swf and it translated
that into "Southwestern German Broadcasting
Corporation" which was something of a shock
as I had no such directory - hacking sprang to
mind but was quickly discounted when I saw the
Your browser will think that Google is looking at your
website. However, you will not see any images so you will
need a html file for it to download (we are just checking
that your server works - we already know what your image
looks like) so put a file called index.html on the
directory root and you will be all right.
Once you have your traffic and your
access log is filling up, you can use a program called
Webalizer (there are a number of these programs but I
have always found this one to do the job I need and it
certainly fills your requirements) to analyse the access
log. Webalizer will analyse the IP addresses and if you
use the Linux version, will do a RDNS check and break
down domains for you. It can do this in the
Windows version but not always, I have found.
Your webalizer results will give you breakdowns of day
of month, time of day, country, browser and so on. There
is, of course, nothing to stop you from writing your own
analysis program for your own purposes but the config
file for Webalizer will allow you to tailor it to your
needs faily well.
Voting without cgi-scripts
This is really just an extension of Web Statistics
without cgi-scripts above. Again, not having access
to cgi-scripts is not necessarily a bad thing as you can
do it all on your home webserver (see Web Statistics
without cgi-scripts above). On your voting page, you
have your question and then links to small answer pages.
At the end of the voting period, you get Webalizer to
count the pages and you work out the results accordingly.
If it was a simple yes/no there is no problem. If you
had a rating with, say, points from 1 to 5, all you do is
add up the pages for the 1 point page, the same for the 2
point page and so on. Multiply the totals by their
scores, divide by the number of votes cast and you have
the result. You can also take steps to stop people voting
more than once by only allowing the first vote (or the
last) from a particular IP address or discounting them
altogether (something to be aware of is that you can have
networks of genuine voters hidden behind a single IP
Once you have your result, you can post it - do this
on a weekly/daily basis. You can make your output graph
as coarse or fine as you like or, you can cheat. The
following is an example using a specific bar graphic.
There is an easier way that uses only
three graphics (if you have one for 0%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 10%
and so on, you have 41 graphics). Using tables, you can
modify the length of the bar very easily.
This is done by having a table with
four cells. The one on the right has the result in it, to
the left of that, there is a transparent graphic which is
set to the same image height as the bar images used (note
that the height of this needs to be as large as the
largest text you are going to use in the cell and also
that it acts as a spacer). The two on the left have the
images only as backgrounds but the width of the cells are
set in pixels so that they two columns add up to 100 (the
bar graph image is only 99 pixels wide and the other is
even less but that is tiled - remember that images are
tiled from the left). Of course, you don't have to make
them 100 pixels wide in total, you can make them as wide
or as narrow as you like.
The code looks like this...
<table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0">
align="middle" width="2" height="21"></td>
One thing that you will notice if you have a look at
the files/webpage directory on the superdisk is that the
html file that you get has a longer name than you might
immediately think necessary - vote001-4.html for example.
By doing this, you can have many votes over a long period
of time and know what each refers to in the server log.
One thing you cannot do with this is have votes on
multiple topics unless you either have them all on the
same page with your users becomeing frustrated with
always having to close browser windows; or, have a series
of webpages that are linked to as they vote through a
sequence of questions on new pages in the same browser -
the html page name might reflect this like vt325.html
preceded by vt32.html and before that vt3.html et cetera.
Network Proxy Server Hardware
Ideally, you should
have a firewall between your proxy server and the
Internet and it should be running on a separate machine
all on its own. However, it is a good idea to have
another firewall protecting the proxy server, running on
the proxy machine as well as this can protect the proxy
from the internal network in addition to anybody who
breaks through your external firewall.
In additon to this, if you are going to have http
accessible from the Internet, you should run this on a
machine on a separate network (usually called a
De-Militarized Zone or DMZ) so that if it is compromised,
the intruder still has to break through another firewall
before (s)he can get into your LAN. This last point means
that if you are running processes that use cgi scripts
(Common Gateway Interface), is should not be accessible
from the outside because if that machine is taken over,
things can be run on it that can compromise your network
shares and so on.
Here, however, we will be running an Apache server
with cgi scripts that is accessible from the Internal
network and if you want, you can make it accessible from
the external network by configuring the firewall to allow
incoming traffic through port 80 (http) as well. To do
this reasonably safely, you will need to keep the version
up-to-date so that vulnerabilities are addressed.
In short, in an ideal situation, you would have three
- Firewall (with three NICs - Internet, LAN and
- Apache Server (with 1 NIC) in the DMZ (for the
Internet and the LAN)
- Proxy Server (with 2 NICs) (between the firewall
and the LAN with your Apache server running cgi
scripts on it that is only accessible from the
Here, we have 1 above (as an appliance with 2 NICs but
you can run a software firewall on a dedicated machine)
and 2 and 3 rolled into a single machine with 2 NICs (one
facing the firewall and one facing the LAN). Note
that the firewall on its own is not described here but
setting it up is pretty much the same as the one
described here except that you would not have any pull-
or push-type connectivity with internal network resources
(such as SMB - Samba) and so on (LAN hosts that use the
proxy pull from the server).
If you just want to try this out or you are on a low
budget, you can roll out all three in one machine.
Running lots of services on your external firewall is not
the safest thing you can do though.
The idea behind this project is that you can speed up
the effective Internet speed of your network so that if
you have already downloaded a file and it has not been
updated since, all that happens is that it is transferred
across your LAN at speeds approaching 100Mbps instead of
600kbps or whatever your broadband connection speed is.
To do this, you will need to have a spare computer or buy
one for the purpose. In addition to this, you can use it
for many other network related jobs such as firewall, URL
filtering, network time and so on. So, what do you need
to have (or buy)?
For small business purposes (unless you are running a
busy website) you need only a modest machine. I managed
to obtain a Fujitsu Siemens Sceneic X which had
- 128MB RAM;
- 6.1GB HDD;
- 500MHz Pentium III Processor; and,
- a built in NIC (as well as USB and all of the
all for around £150 from a Derby electronics shop -
there are plenty of these in University cities as
students are on the lookout for such machines. You might
want to take a copy of KNOPPIX on CD or CDR in order to
check that Linux will recognise its components.
To this, I added a second NIC (a PCI card) to make it
dual-homed and another 128MB of RAM and a KVM switch
which meant that I did not need to buy another keyboard,
monitor or mouse or find extra room for them. The Scenic
fits under the existing monitor as the monitor's original
CPU is a midi tower.
This setup is suitable for small businesses and homes
so if you need really fast connection for some reason,
you can buy more memory (the more the better), have a
faster processor (or more than one - Linux supports this)
or build your own.
The KVM I found was an
ATEN 2 port KVM (£50) which has built-in leads. If you
are going to be unplugging the KVM a lot, it would
probably be better to have one with separate leads as you
can replace them when they break but for a static
installation, one if these is cheaper. When pricing up
these, remember that the leads are expensive if you have
to buy them separately and you should therefore take that
cost into account as they can cost more than some of the
The idea is that you plug both computers into the KVM
and then your single mouse, keyboard and monitor into it
as well (as you can see above). With this model, all you
need to do is press [Scroll Lock] twice in quick
succession and you swap from one computer to another
which is quite handy although can be confusing. The LED
indicator lets you know which connection is currently on
so I would advise plugging the leads in so that this
makes sense, ie the LED on the right implies the computer
on the right.
Before you can install any software, your drive needs
to be divided up in an intelligent way. Normally, with
Windows systems, there is only one partition and the swap
space is just a file in the only partition.
In Linux, this is done a little more intelligently
with a minimum of two partitions - one for your files and
one for your swap space.
It makes more sense to have a few more partitions so
that things are protected. Things you might like to
protect on a system are the boot partition (/boot in red on
the right), the home directories (/home although this
might be more like protecting the rest of the computer
against what is going on in the /home directories), /var/log (the
home of the log files (in blue on the right) - if this
fills up, it does not clog up the rest of your drive),
and so on.
Having your server directory on its own partition (/srv in green on
the right) is often a good idea as well - anybody who
gains access to your server and allows it to write to the
partition that the server directories are on will only
overwrite or corrupt that partition.
There are many ways of doing it and every one of them
will have something wrong with it in somebody's eyes.
Here, note that we are having some network addressable
storage as well (under /nas but this is also used for the
proxy (Squid) cache so I configured Squid to use half of
it ie /nas/nas_cache for nas and /nas/squid_cache for
Squid - I could have partitioned these separately if I
wanted to but decided that if I found that I needed a lot
of NAS, I could sacrifice some of the Squid Cache).
So, this is what I did and it seems to run okay. In
the SuSE installation process, I divided up and
partitioned the 6.1GB drive (as specified in the
description from the shop) as follows...
Notice that 8,056MB (7.87 GB) is
slightly larger than the 6.1GB that Windows was getting
out of the drive. You might be lucky and have this happen
to you or you might not. This is, as far as I am aware,
not a feature of ReiserFS.
Note that with earlier machines, there is a limit of
8.4GB on drive size. If you have one of these and it is
down to the BIOS, you will not get more than the 8.4GB
out of the drive regardless of the file system you use
Also note that ReiserFS has a very high efficiency for
small files (it does not throw away the space at the end
of a sector as FAT file systems do as it is designed to
work differently to that) and if you are likely to have a
lot of small files - such as if you are running a web
server (all of those .gifs, .pngs and so on) - it makes
sense to use ReiserFS. Also, ReiserFS is a journaling
file system so if you have a dirty shutdown (such as
power failure), it can get the file storage back together
again in just a few seconds instead of several minutes -
something that is important in an environment that is not
tolerant of downtime.
The obvious choice for a server is Linux
as this is well optimised for PCs (the PC versions
anyway) and SuSE is particularly easy to install and use.
You are not confronted with just a bare command line and
you don't have to sit around for three hours while the
kernel compiles. It installs quicker than Windows XP and
only needs roughly the same amount of interaction as
Windows XP during installation. I used SuSE Linux
Professional 8.2 for this although the same principles
apply for other versions and other flavours of Linux. If
you want to compile everything yourself, you can use
Gentoo or one of the others (the others also have
pre-compiled versions as well).
These are the pieces of software that I loaded...
- SuSE Linux (Operating System);
- SuSE Firewall2 (Firewall);
- dhcpcd (DHCP client daemon);
- Squid (Proxy Server);
- SquidGuard (URL Filtering);
- Samba (for your Network Addressable Storage)
- xntpd (Network Time Server);
- Apache 1.3.xx (Webserver needed for Nagios - see
- Log Analysis and System Administration
- Ethereal (network analysis)
- Squid Log Analyser (downloaded from
- Webalizer (httpd access log analysis)
- KDE system Guard (Monitor system load and
- Info Center (keep track of resources such
as memory and disk space)
- Nagios (overview of whole network and
beyond with automatic notification of any
Wherever possible, I have opted for the GUI way of doing
things instead of the command line (although I have given
both in some cases) because this is the type of
environment that people will be familiar with from
Windows. Apart from just being able to click on things,
the GUI also offers a visual representation of the system
layout such as in Konqueror running as the file browser -
something that should help with getting to grips with the
Also, I have given the name and location of
configuration files. To edit such a file, open up the Konqueror
file browser (home) and locate your configuration file
using the pane on the left (for directory structure) and
click once on the file icon or name in the pane on the
right to open it in Kwrite which is like notepad in
Windows. You should of course, make a backup copy just to
be on the safe side before you edit it (but remember to
edit the current copy and not the backup).
With the exception of Squid Log Analyser, I configured
the network cards (see 'Network Cards' below) and ran the
SuSE system update which automatically downloads any
patches that are required.
This ensures that your system is protected against
recent attacks and vulnerabilities. As you have a
broadband connection, this should not take too long
although it has to be said that the first time you do it,
it does take longer.
SuSE Linux is very easy to install and installs
quicker than Windows XP (I have done both). It uses a GUI
(KDE, although you can use Gnome or a number of others)
and takes you through the steps, explaining what you need
to do (choose a keyboard layout, partition your hard
drive and so on) and only took me 20 minutes on this
installation (no office software although I did install
The GIMP as I need to take screenshots so on yours, you
should have more space and an even quicker installation).
When it is up and running, it looks like
Windows and behaves pretty much the same. Linux was
designed from the beginning to be networking so it works
well at this and has a wide variety ot tools to make the
In the screenshot on the right, you can see the task
bar at the bottom, the menu up the left (like the start
menu in Windows) and a browser window open (Konqueror)
There are a number of tools available to help you and
some of them are already on the taskbar.
On the right, you can
see the icon with the Windows equivalent programs.
Clicking on the K with the gears gives you the (Start)
One thing you will notice is that there are multiple
desktops. With these, you can set up a few standard
desktops and leave them running. I use 'Info Center' and
'KDE System Guard' on two desktops, leaving them running.
You can configure the desktop - including how many
desktops you want - by right-clicking on the desktop and
selecting Configure Desktop. You can also do this with
the Taskbar or, if you prefer, do them all from within
the Control Center.
One thing you should consider is not having any screen
saver other than 'blank' so that you are not occupying
the processor unnecessarily. Also, you should set the
time for screen saver activation to be only a few
minutes. With a KVM switch, you are not saving a screen
and also, you are not taking up space on your desk.
Before you can do
anything network, you need to configure your network
cards. Go into Control Center and then, YaST2 Modules/
Network Devices/ Network Card and configure the cards to
your internal network and your cable modem.
In order to check that you have them the right way
around, you can either connect the internal (LAN) card to
a LAN machine and do something LAN with it or connect the
external (Internet) card to the cable modem and launch a
browser. If you have eth0 and eth1 identified correctly,
this should work. If not, swap them over and try again.
With the cards now correctly identified, mark them with
sticky labels so that you don't forget.
The SuSE Firewall2 comes with SuSE Linux and is a
stateful inspection type within which you can activate
Network Address Translation (NAT aka Masquerading). NAT
does not a firewall make however, it is a useful addition
as it makes it appear that every host behind it comes
from just on IP address. The configuration file
(SuSEfirewall2) is located in /etc/sysconfig
In it, you need to define FW_DEV_EXT, FW_DEV_INT, the
external and internal NICs (although you can define any
interface) and, if you have a demilitarized zone, you can
define the interface to this as well - FW_DEV_DMZ.
There are a number of other options such as
FW_MASQUERADE and FW_ROUTE and so on, allowing various
degrees of functionality. The configuration file is
heavily annotated and there is plenty of help about it on
the Internet so your shouldn't have any problems setting
it up by yourself.
If you just want to
use NAT, you can set it up entirely from Control Center/
YaST2 modules/ Security and users/ Firewall. In fact, it
is a good idea to start off with this anyway.
Once you have finished setting up your firewall, you
can take the Internet connection and plug it into a local
machine and then use that local machine to port scan it
and attack it, just to see if it works properly.
If you are going to use the machine as a dhcp server
for your internal network, you need to configure and run
dhcpd. dhcpd.conf (the dhcp daemon configuration file) is
in /etc and there is support documentation in
If you need to
request a dhcp lease from your ISP, you need to configure
and run the dhcp client daemon (dhcpcd). dhclient.conf is
in /etc and contains notes about its setup. More details
are to be found in man dhclient.conf which you can get in
the bash (Bourne Again SHell) console by typing "man
dhclient.conf" at the command prompt or by going
into the Konqueror web browser and typing
"man:/dhclient.conf" if you have the KIO Slave
Squid is the name of the proxy server. It sits on port
3128, looking at requests for Internet http traffic from
the LAN and when received, it checks to see if it already
has an up-to-date copy of that file stored locally (ie,
on your fast side of the modem bottleneck). If it has, it
transfers that to the browser instread. Thus, if a
website has been visited before and the files on the
proxy server do not need to be updated, they can be
downloaded at LAN speeds instead of the relatively
To use it, you need to change a line in the
SuSEfirewall configuration file so that it says:
Squid's configuration file (squid.conf) is in
/etc/squid. It is fairly long but almost all of it is
annotation. It is worth working your way through it but
the main parts are defining the port it listens to (say
your internal network is 192.168.1.0/24 and its gateway
is 192.168.1.254 and you want to listen to port 3128, you
need the line
and you also need to assign a space and location for
cache_dir ufs /nas/squid_cache 1400 16 256
is what I use signifying that roughly 1.4GB of
/dev/hda4 is used for the proxy cache, leaving the rest
for the NAS. Also set
for minimal logging.
Again, just work your
way through it and when you have finished, start the
service using Control Center - you will have to restart
the firewall as well since you changed its configuration
file. The easiest way to do that is with the command line
but the most convenient if you want to avoid that is
through the Control Center using the Runlevel editor -
YaST2 modules/ System/ Runlevel editor.
The Runlevel editor allows you to select the run
levels for any particular program. Run level 2 is a
self-contained, standalone machine running just a command
line. Runlevel 3 is the same but with network
connectivity so network programs start to appear with
this runlevel. Runlevel 5 is with the GUI. It also allows
you to stop and start the programs and any that are
dependent upon any others will be sorted out for you. Be
careful with this editor as its consequences are very
powerful. If you find yourself at a standalone command
line on bootup log in as root and type
to set the run level to 3. To get the GUI, type
With squid running in runlevels 3 and 5, you should
have your proxy service, albeit one that allows
everything through without any filtering.
URL filtering comes as SquidGuard. Its configuration
file is squidguard.conf in /etc. This one is quite a bit
simpler than the others although you will have to modify
the squid.conf file so that it includes the line:
redirect_program /usr/sbin/squidGuard -c /etc/squidguard.conf
and to restart it, you need to restart squid.
First of all, you need to have a
database of words, URLs and domains. You can download
these from the squidguard website and install them in
/var/lib/squidGuard/db. You can of course add to this
list if you want to - see below.
Next, you can specify a redirect page for blocked
websites. You can do this on the local machine web server
- hence running Apache. You can make this as simple or
complicated as you like. Click on the image on the right
to see one thing that you can do with this (in this case
for a domestic installation).... You can of course, put
anything you like there or follow the example in the
original configuration file.
One thing you will have to do is test it so you can go
into Google and type "porn" (or whatever your
restrictions suggest you should try). If all works
properly, you should get the blocked page you have
specified. It it does not, you will not be able to use
that again without clearing out the local cache on the
machine you are testing it on. If you don't want the
bother of doing this each time, you will have to start
clicking on the links and, as a result, downloading pages
Remember that you can turn off the images in the
browser but also, remember that if anybody asks, you are
configuring SquidGuard (which of course you are - this is
not an excuse, this is a reason). If you want to preclude
any unnecessary interest from your ISP or anybody else,
you might wish to start the configuration testing by
typing "SquidGaurd" into the search string
before hand - of course, this is not guaranteed but it
With SquidGuard, you can define access control lists
by user, IP, time of day-week and so on so, if you want
to allow your employees access to everything except porn
sites, only during their lunch breaks whilst leaving the
system administrator's machine unhindered by filtering at
any time of any day, you can. Again, there is a lot of
information on how to configure all of this.
Another useful thing that SquidGuard does is allow you
to add your own words, URLs and domains to the blocked
list. Apart from the obvious ones that you can block, you
can also use your squid access log to find out the names
of things you don't want to appear on your browsers such
as advertising. If you look at your squid log, you will
be able to see the names of websites that have been
accessed and you can add these - either as full URLs or
even just partial domains to the lists. In the future -
after restarting Squidguard - they will not appear.
Network Addressable Storage
The idea behind this
is so that you have some commonly available storage on
the network. In this example, it is not protected but you
can protect it with userIDs and passwords if you want: it
depends on what user population you have. To get NAS
working, you need to have samba installed and you also
need to change a line in the SuSEfirewall configuration
file so that it says:
Samba is SMB which Windows uses and is configured by
smb.conf in /etc/samba. You need to have the windows
share you want defined and the level of sharing. Some
lines have the same effect but the following should
path = /nas/nas_cache
public = yes
guest ok = yes
create mask = 0640
directory mask = 0770
read only = no
writable = yes
locking = no
Restart samba in Control Center and it should appear
in Windows Explorer under Network Neighborhood as
Remember to change the permissions of the NAS
directory that you have allocated to UID nobody and GID
to nogroup so that anybody can read and write them
otherwise you will have to configure permissions.
Network Time Server
There is a saying that goes along the lines of 'A man
with one watch knows exactly what the time is whereas a
man with two watches never knows'. So, with at least
several PCs it is a really nice idea to have all of the
clocks on your network say the same time. A Network Time
server will take the time signal from a suitable local
second stratum time sever and not only keep its host's
time correct but will act as a time server to other
machines on your LAN. With only one machine querying the
external time server, this will keep their traffic down.
xntpd is the time
server and its configuration file (ntp.conf) is in /etc.
There are details and help on how to configure it but if
you put several external time servers in the list, it
will find one that it can use and unlike some others,
uses a drift file so that it can keep the machine's time
accurate to within a few microseconds (it wouldn't really
matter if it was just a few milliseconds really).
Just configure the time clients on your LAN machines
to look at your server and they will all tell the time
very accurately (ping times of <1ms are not uncommon).
The Apache server (version 1.3.xx) is used by
SquidGuard for its blocked pages and also by the network
monitoring program Nagios (see below). We have discussed
the configuration of Apache in the past (version 2.0.48
in PC Plus issue 213 - security cameras - hamstercam).
Note that at the time of writing, the current version for
version 2 is 2.0.49 and for version 1.3 is 1.3.29
Apache (httpd) is started and stopped from the
Runlevel Editor and its configuration file (httpd.conf)
is in /etc/httpd
Here you need to set the server name, server root and
webroot. Then set any password restrictions on
Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
Deny from all
AuthName "Secret Server Files access:"
Require group ssfg
You also need to create any password and group files
listed in the restrictions, using the password program
(see the documentation on its use) and kwrite to create
the group files you need.
Your web pages will end up in
/srv/www/htdocs and if you put a file in there called
index.html, that will be displayed instead of a
server-generated directory listing of your webserver
There is plenty of information about running Apache,
both in the documentation that is installed with the
server and also on Apache's website which is at http://httpd.apache.org/
Integrating SAMBA with Apache under Linux
One interesting thing about Linux is related to what
you can do with disks and other resources.
In Windows, you are
stuck with drive C:, drive D: and so on. If you want to
refer to anything on another drive, you cannot do it
without having to be clever.
With Linux (and other Unices) you mount a file system
within the directory structure and it doesn't really
matter what file system it is or even where it is.
If you look at the partition mounting tree above, you
will see that we have mounted one partition as /var/log.
This partition could be hda# or even a partition on a
physically separate drive hdb#, hdc# or even sda# (where
# is a number - hde5 for example).
In Windows, it is possible to represent network shares
as drives and this is also true under Linux - except that
it is not (in the same way that non- network drives are
not) represented as a separate drive.
So, it is possible to mount an SMB share (from another
machine, running Windows, say,) within the Linux system
as though it was on the same machine.
In the example on the right, you can see that the
partition mounted as /srv (yellow) has
/srv/www/htdocs/hcam mounted in it. This is an SMB share
from a drive on another machine on the network.
There are pros and cons to doing this. With the
Hamster Cam/ Security monitoring (webcam) in PC Plus
issue 213, we used a piece of software on a Windows
machine that could ftp an image file onto a server every
so often. Here, it is just saving it locally and when the
Apache webserver wants a copy of it, it sends across the
LAN a request for it.
If you are getting more hits per unit time on your
server for this image than you are saving new images, the
advantage lies with ftping (ie pushing) each new image to
the server (remember that you would then have an ftp
server running on it which has its own security
considerations) whereas if you are getting fewer, the
advantage is with using SMB to pull it across your
network when required. This is based on the idea of
keeping network traffic to a minimum.
Log Analysis and System Administration
In order to keep an eye on what is going on and to
allow you to investigate things should you need to, there
are a number of tools that you can use. The following are
the ones that I find useful:
- Ethereal (network analysis)
- Squid Log Analyser - analysing the squid proxy
log so that you can keep an eye on what is
- Webalizer (httpd access log analysis)
- KDE system Guard (Monitor system load and
- Info Center (keep track of resources such as
memory and disk space)
- Nagios (overview of whole network and beyond with
automatic notification of any problems
Ethereal is a packet
sniffer. You can set it to look at either (or any)
network interface (whether it is a NIC or a dial-up and
so on) and it will observe any traffic on that network
segment regardless of whether it was directed at the
machines NIC or not - in other words, it views the
network in promiscuous mode (although you can elect not
to capture in this mode if you wish)
This program is useful for finding out what is
happening if you are having problems setting up a
particular program - for example, it could tell you what
is going on if your dhcp negotiations are not working the
way you think they should or if you want to check if
something that should be encrypted is actually being sent
over the network in the clear.
Squid Log Analyser
log analyser (its configuration file is wherever you put
the program) is a nifty little program from Olaf Schubert
) that analyses the access log file for Squid. You can
configure it to look at the last however many entries you
wish to check where the users have been and how many
cache hits you have.
Click on the image on the right to see an example of
proportion of cache hits can vary depending upon what
type of browsing your users are doing but I have seen the
proportion of cached files in the last 500 vary from as
low as around 20% to as high as 90%.
If your cache can be fairly substantial, say 1.4GB as
on this machine, it can represent the casual browsing of
an average family (read into that what you like) of
several months worth of files.
One thing you might like to do with the code when you
install it is to change one of the lines, just under the
commented #date line there is a commented #convert
UTC-Date... line and you should add another line (I did
it just after $year=$year+1900;) thus:
$month=$month + 1; # correct the month
Webalizer is nifty little program that
looks at your website hits and can give you an idea of
just how busy your server is - certainly as far as port
80 is concerned. Its configuration file (webalizer.conf)
is at /etc, is very well annotated and doesn't really
need any explanation here.
It gives graphical output of the system including
where on the planet the people who looked at your website
came from, what time of the month and what time of the
day, as well as letting you know which pages people
entered and left your site on.
Each calendar month is broken down in this way so that
you have the last 12 months at hand.
KDE system Guard
This program allows you to monitor the
process table - a list of the processes that are at work
which you can have as a simple list or as a tree - or a
series of graphs which you can save and open later.
I keep a copy of this running at all times so that I
can monitor what is going on. The default settings give
you a 2x2 array of the top two rows of the screenshot. I
have added another three rows with the LAN interface on
the left and the Internet interface on the right (this is
the way that it is arrange physically and it is always a
good idea to do reflect the physical layout if you can as
it makes more sense if you have to look at things in a
hurry for some reason).
Of the bottom three rows, the top one is packets from
the Internet to the LAN, the second is packets from the
LAN to the Internet and the bottom one is collisions for
the two interfaces.
You can see from the screenshot that there is a lot of
traffic between the server and the LAN that is not going
out to the Internet (I was hammering the LAN to test it
by copying large files around it). On the bottom, you can
see that the quantity of collisions decreases
substantially as the interframe gap is increased by the
NICs. The IEEE standard (802.3) says that it should be
9.6 microseconds but a lot of NICs have it set a lot
lower than this because low demand networks such as home
networks work faster as there are fewer machines on them
to generate collisions. With more machines, you have more
collisions so you should have a larger gap to help
prevent this - note that you cannot prevent early
collisions (ones that happen within the first 512 bits of
data) as these will happen anyway.
This is another one
that I keep running on a desktop all of its own. Whilst
it can tell you important information about your system
such as how many bogomips it produces, it is more
important to look at resources such as memory, storage
devices (how the disk space situation is developing) and
usb devices (if you are using any) as these are helpful
in finding out how the system is changing or if it is
nice and static.
If you look under Processor you can see how fast your
processor is - the machine I obtained for this project
gave roughtly 1200 bogomips
runs on one of the machines on your network - some people
say that it would be better to have it running on a
machine on its own as it can take up a lot of processing
power if you have a large network (possibly thousands of
machines running many times more services) and frequent
checks but for a small network of half a dozen computers
to several dozen it should be okay to run it on a 500MHz
machine with a few hundred MB of RAM.
The program itself monitors system resources by
testing them at specified time intervals. The time
intervals can occur at any time of the day or week or you
can define your own working week with different days,
hours and so on so, if a machine was only turned on
during office hours but not on Wednesday afternoons, that
could be defined so that it would know not to look for it
out of the specified hours.
If something out of the ordinary happens such as a
machine becomes unreachable for more than a specified
amount of time, the program can email you or perform one
or more of a variety of functions as specified by you in
the configuration files - such an event could be
triggered by a system crash, a hardware failure such as a
NIC going down, workmen cutting through a fibre-optic
cable or somebody stealing a server; and you would know
either in real time or by looking at the logs when it
Like the testing, the notification time periods can be
specified so that people who are not available at
weekends are not emailed during them and so on.
Nagios is capable not only of looking at the machines
on your network, but also at other resources so if, for
example, you have an outsourced website that you need to
know is available 168/52, Nagios can check it for you and
let you know if it was unavailable for eleven hours
between Saturday night and Sunday morning although it
cannot tell you why.
When you install Nagios, and then look at the
configuration and help files (/etc/nagios) you might find
that the paths are slightly different to some of the
various Nagios resources on the system.
On mine, the webserver root (that is placed in
Apache's server file system using aliases) is on
/usr/lib/nagios; the documentation and other resources
are on /usr/share/nagios; and; the ever-useful log files
are on /var/log/nagios.
When you are configuring Nagios, you will find the log
files very useful as they will let you know where you
have gone wrong (unless you are exceptionally brilliant
at it and manage to configure it correctly the first time
you use it).
There are two main parts to configure:
- Various Nagios configuration files: hosts,
services, relationships between them and so on.
Look in Apache's configuration file - httpd.conf in
/etc/httpd and in the aliases section, you need to let
Apache know that Nagios is to be a part of the system and
what it is going to be called...
## start of nagios inclusion
ScriptAlias /nagios/cgi-bin/ /usr/lib/nagios/cgi/
AuthName "Nagios Access"
Require group nagiosgp
deny from all
Alias /nagios/ /usr/share/nagios/
AuthName "Nagios Access"
Require group nagiosgp
deny from all
## end of nagios inclusion
You also need to make an addition to the directories
so that Apache knows who is allowed to use it.
Access permissions section
## start of nagios inclusion
AuthName "Nagios Access"
Require group nagiosgp
allow from all
AuthName "Nagios Access"
Require group nagiosgp
allow from all
## end of nagios inclusion
This might seem a bit belt-and-braces but it doesn't
leave anything to chance. With the conf file updated you
can restart Apache using YaST2.
The other bit you have to configure is Nagios. This is
broken down into a number of files in a sort of
relational database thus...
The main configuration of Nagios is in nagios.cfg
where the program is told where to look for the resources
that it needs; each host has a place in the hosts.cfg and
each host is part of a group (these can be which subnet
they are on and so on) which are mentioned in
hostgroups.cfg. Hosts are dependent upon the services of
other hosts and so on - the whole lot linking together.
The contacts (people such as systems administrators on
various shifts and so no) are members of contact groups
and can be (individually) contacted according to their
work times. In addition to this, it is possible to
specify scheduled downtime so that people are not getting
warnings about things that are not really happening.
The best way of getting to know Nagios is to set up a
simple network with just a few hosts and a few services
(say, just pings to start with and perhaps a http
server). Configure it and then start Nagios in YaST2. If
anything is wrong, the error log (config.err in
/var/log/nagios) will tell you what it is (or at least
the first ones it comes across until things get so
confusing that it just gives up - things have to be
fairly bad for this to happen though and it usually does
a good job of letting you know what it wrong).
Once it is up and running, you can access it via a web
browser on any machine that you have so permitted. You
will have to type your userID and password and then you
are in. Click on Tac tical Overview and you will be able
to see at a glance if there is anything wrong with hosts
If you have specified
the 2D co-ordinates in the hosts.cfg file, click on the
Status Map in the menu (left frame) will give you a
picture like the one on the right.
On the right of the diagram, the LAN is defined and
then the various routers and firewalls lead out of the
local system onto the ISP's system and then to hosts on
the Internet. You can configure Nagios to look at these
as well so, apart from your outsources website, you can
have your favourite search engines or anything you like.
As long as the owners will let you ping it or check the
http service (or whatever you want - as permitted),
Nagios can check it. With systems owned by other people,
it is a good idea to check them fairly infrequently as
these will have a fair amount of demand on them any way
and to have several hundred of their customers pinging it
once a minute just to see if it still there will probably
lead them to block you or at least complain. Once every
15 minutes, once per hour (or day even) would be more
appropriate depending on yours and their circumstances.
Click on Service
Detail will get you a picture like the one on the right.
Each host has the services described and you can look at
the status information - so, say you wanted to know how
much disk space there was on a particular machine or how
fast the ping was, you could find out on this page.
Click on any of the links on here and they will take
you to the appropriate page (services, hosts, trends and
If, in the above
page, you click on a service and then "View Alert
Histogram for This Service", you get an image like
the one on the right. You can specify the report period
(last day, month, this year and so on) and the Breakdown
type (Day of the month, Day of the week, hour of the day
and so on) so that you can see if anything happens at a
specific time of the day, week, month and so on.
You can also state types of states to graph. Selecting
hard and soft states will give you the most results.
Clicking on the "Update" button will give you
your new image.
If you click on
"Trends For This Service", you will get a
picture like this one. You can see where the service
fluctuates between OK, Warning, Unknown, Critical and
If you click on a portion of the bar, it will zoom in.
If you want to zoom out, change the zoom factor to a
negative value and click on the update button.
Again, you can change the time period and investigate
any part of the record you like. If you find that things
go pear-shaped with disk space and then clear themselves
up every day at the same time, it might be that you have
gone over a warning level with a log and at the same time
each day, the log is archived and the problem clears
itself up. If you want to try that out, you can set the
loglevel in Squid to 5 (remember to turn it back to 1
If you want to
see Nagios running on a site and have a play around with
it, go to http://www.nagios.org/demo.php (or click
on the image on the right which will open a new browser
window) where instructions are given on visiting such a
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