PC Plus HelpDesk - issue 251
|This month, Paul Grosse gives you more insight into
some of the topics dealt with in HelpDesk and HelpDesk
From the pages of HelpDesk, we look at:
- Phishy domain names;
- Buffer Overflows/overruns;
- Click to remove?;
- History in BASH;
- Dark side of Unicode;
- Flames on film;
- Migrating machines - recovering passwords;
- Infuriatingly incomplete dictionaries;
- Connect with Curl;
- Mogrify your images;
- Bathtub failure model;
- The Registry - time to go;
- Clean your printer; and,
- Final Warning - Hardware peripherals - Taking
Phishy domain names
Sometimes, you get emails that come from services that
you are a member of and sometimes you get them from
services that you are not. This is one such email
From: "New MySpace Message" <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Subject: New message from Sarah on MySpace sent on Oct 06 17:20:00 -4 2006
Date: Sat, 07 Oct 2006 00:33:09 +0300
You've got a new song from Sarah on MySpace!
Click here to hear your MySpace music:
Click here to get 5-free songs downloaded to Your Space:
At MySpace we care about your privacy. We have sent you this
notification to facilitate your use as a member of the MySpace service.
and, so on.
though it might be to click on the link to
'mysapce.mp3shect.com' - especially with the bait of
getting several free mp3 songs as well, it would not be
wise to do so. This scam plays on the fact that many
people who use the Internet simply have no idea about how
any of it works. The senders of this email hope that its
recipients will see the 'myspace' and '.com' parts of the
domain name and think that this is the real thing - not
realising that 'myspace' is, in this case, a subdomain of
If you are on a UNIX-like system like Linux or BSD,
you can just open up a console. Using 'host', you should
get something like the following for 'www.myspace.com'
paul@obsidian:~> host www.myspace.com
www.myspace.com has address 22.214.171.124
www.myspace.com has address 126.96.36.199
www.myspace.com has address 188.8.131.52
www.myspace.com has address 184.108.40.206
www.myspace.com has address 220.127.116.11
www.myspace.com has address 18.104.22.168
paul@obsidian:~> host myspace.mp3shest.com
myspace.mp3shest.com has address 22.214.171.124
This gives you individual addresses that those domain
names link to. You can see that the first three octets
are completely different but that on its own does not
prove that they are not linked.
In addition - and being a little more conclusive - we
can look at the people who own the blocks of IP
addresses. If we try 'whois' on one of the myspace IPs
and on the suspect...
paul@obsidian:~> whois 126.96.36.199
Address: 1333 2nd Dt Suite 100
City: Santa Monica
NetRange: 188.8.131.52 - 184.108.40.206
NetType: Direct Assignment
OrgTechName: MySpace NOC
# ARIN WHOIS database, last updated 2006-10-06 19:10
# Enter ? for additional hints on searching ARIN's WHOIS database.
paul@obsidian:~> whois 220.127.116.11
% [whois.apnic.net node-2]
% Whois data copyright terms http://www.apnic.net/db/dbcopyright.html
inetnum: 18.104.22.168 - 22.214.171.124
descr: CNC Group Guangdong province network
descr: China Network Communications Group Corporation
descr: No.156,Fu-Xing-Men-Nei Street,
descr: Beijing 100031
remarks: service provider
changed: email@example.com 20030108
status: ALLOCATED PORTABLE
changed: firstname.lastname@example.org 20060124
descr: CNC Group CHINA169 Guangdong Province Network
changed: email@example.com 20060118
role: CNCGroup Hostmaster
address: No.156,Fu-Xing-Men-Nei Street,
changed: firstname.lastname@example.org 20041119
You can see now that the two are not related. It did,
of course, turn out that this was just a phishing scam,
trying to get the usual information from end users. It
was, however, spammed quite aggressively and went out to
many non-MySpace users.
So, if you
are unfortunate enough not to have access to a computer
that runs UNIX, Linux, BSD and so on, what can you do
You can open up a DOS box and use 'nslookup' instead
Whois resources for Windows users...
Even with Windows, you can still find 'whois' services
on the Internet if you know where to look. So, here's
where to look...
overruns can be seen in security updates most of the
time. They happen when you have a buffer in a program
such as in the top part of the diagram on the right which
depicts a program with a buffer in it as a line of code
Essentially, the buffer is just a space where input
data can be stored so that it can be used - there are
several types of buffer but this is essentially what
happens with an overflow. You can think of the buffer as
a compiled variable - say, in this case is it a string
that can be a maximum of 1,024 bytes long. The program
counter trundles along at its own pace, reading commands
and executing them until it gets to the jump command at
the beginning of the buffer. Then, it jumps to where the
end of the buffer and start processing again. That way,
the processor only ever processes commands and never
tries to process what is essentially data.
The middle part of the diagram shows what happens
normally. This could be a subroutine for taking a command
or anything that uses user input - also known as tainted
data. You might have a situation like this if this
program was a server and the programmers had also written
a client that would supply it with strings that were
1,024 bytes long or less. In this case, there would not
be a problem with buffer overruns
Many programming languages have no way of protecting
themselves against tainted input and many programmers do
not code with security in mind. This leads to a situation
where somebody else could be using a program that they
had written and they deliberately send your server a
string that was, say, 1,536 bytes long. Without any
checking of this, it would end up with 1,536 bytes being
written into that variable. The extra 512 bytes replaces
whatever is at the end of that variable, which might well
be some program code - this 'data' will then be executed
when the program jumps to the end of the buffer.
With this in mind, some people craft the extra data as
proper program code - ie, sending it machine code
instructions so that your sever does what they want it to
do - whether that is to crash your server (Denial of
service attack, aka DoS attack); take it over so that
they can use it to send spam; or, gain escalated
privileges. In order to effect this, they will send long
strings to a server until it breaks. Then, they will try
to find out how it broke and then, they will have an idea
of what programming they will need in order to do what
they want. If that sounds a little far fetched, then it
will surprise you to find out that that is what happens.
So, whether you run Windows, Linux, BSD or anything
else, in the updates you will often see patches for
buffer overflows so it is worthwhile using them.
Click to remove?
times, you will see an email that will claim that you can
remove yourself from a distribution list just by clicking
on a link in the email.
Unless you live close to the postal address of the
sender or know someone who does so that you can pay them
a visit, there is, unfortunately, no way of telling
whether clicking on the link in the email would:
- remove you from a distribution list of a
legitimate company that was under the impression
that what it was doing with UK in-boxes was
- add you to a list of email addresses that can be
sold on to spammers as an 'all verified
addresses' CD collection.
Therefore, I would say 'don't click on the link' -
just delete it.
In the UK, the Privacy and Electronic Communications
Regulations (EC Directive) 2003 requires explicit
prior consent to be given for commercial
emails to individual subscribers.
Many senders of emails will be sending them to
addresses with domain names that end in '.com' but there
are no limits to where these addresses will be and some
will undoubtedly end up in the UK and therefore subject
to the regulations.
If you use BASH, you will know that you can see, edit
and use previous command lines and also that you are not
limited to the current session. If you have been using it
for a while, there will seem to be a limitless supply of
older command lines saved somewhere on your system.
So, have you ever thought where this history is, just
how large it is or even what's in it?
The bash command line history is in a hidden file in
your home directory called '.bash_history' (so, that
would be '/home/paul/.bash_history' with changes for your
login and your system (sometimes the home directory is in
'/user', '/u' or '/users' or '/export/users' depending on
the UNIX-like system that you are using) and contains the
most recent 1,000 lines.
see it's contents by typing 'history' at the command line
or, if you are not on a graphical CLI, you can pipe it to
less by typing 'history|less'. This is particularly
useful if you are wondering what you typed in order to
achieve something in particular a moderate time ago.
thing to be aware of is that although your history file
has '-rw-------' as its permissions, root can also read
it. If root is someone other than yourself, can you
really trust them? (hint ... no.)
So, if you have ever typed your password on the
command line by mistake (perhaps thinking that you had
already issued a command that was waiting for it), it
will be in there as well.
.bash_history is a plain text file so you can either
search through it in KWrite, remove any offending lines
and then save the file or just delete it.
Most people would not argue that ASCII is without any
limitations. The obvious choice when you encounter a
limitation is Unicode which has all of our favourite
ASCII codes plus a hell of a lot more. This enables
people to use accented characters and symbols that you
just don't find in ASCII.
If you look in the files directory, you will find a
file called 'unicode.html' and if you click here,
it will open up in a new window.
This page has been generated from a Perl script which
you can find by clicking here. It is called 'unicodegen' and you
can edit the values in it to produce your own
unicode.html file. Your system should have Perl on it
unless you are running Windows in which case, you can get
it from ActiveState.
is written so that no particular coding is used and as a
result, you can specify which ranges of Unicode values
you use and which font and so on.
To change the
encoding, just right-click on the page and select the
encoding you want.
This all sounds as though it is really useful but in
the same way that electricity can be used to power your
computer or an electric chair, there is a negative side
to this as well.
|Many spammers and other senders of unwanted email
deliberately use these codes in order to obfuscate the
true identities of links in emails - thinking usually
correctly that the user will not bother to check them out
first. You will see, if you look at the source of the
unicode.html file, that the codes from 32 to 127 can be
written as Unicode values thus obfuscating their true
In addition, some malicious websites use them
in an attempt to get though filtering proxies that would
otherwise filter out their pages.
Remember: '%73%65%78' will sell just about anything.
The image on the right is a genuine car fire at night
(around 06:20am) and as such, is a mass of alkali metal
emission spectra and interference patterns. However, it
is not difficult to reproduce these effects.
First of all, let's look at the flames and see why
they are coloured the way they are.
In the car itself, you can see flames that appear to
be coloured but when you look at them closely, you can
see that they are in fact white. It is the area around
the flames that is coloured.
Just in case you were wondering, they are really that
colour. Normally, flames will appear yellow - primarily
on, say burning wood. However, here, the environment is
different. In the car, there are a number of gunpowder
charges for the air bags. The only metal ions in gun
powder are potassium. If you have a dusty gas stove and
light one of the rings then bang the side of the cooker
lightly, you will see yellow flecks in the flame - these
are particles containing sodium. Sodium emits a yellow
light and in the same way, potassium emits a lilac
colour. In the flame, the electrons in the metal ions
become excited and as they fall to lower energy levels,
they emit light. We are dealing with a quantum effect
here so the wavelength will always be the same for a
particular fall from one energy level to another. The
different energy levels that electrons fall from and to,
together with the probabilities that a particular fall
can be generated (ie, the electron has to get there in
the first place and so on) determines the emission
spectrum for that element. Why do different elements have
different spectra? Because they have different nuclei and
therefore the orbitals that provide the different energy
levels will have a different size.
So, how do we make one in an image?
need to do is to mimic the over exposed area and the
surrounding glow. This is simpler than it seems.
of all, create a mask, say by using the Bezier curve
selection tool. Next, create two new layers. Select one
of them and fill the selected area with white. Next,
select the other, grow it, blur it and then fill it with
the flame colour you want.
Next, use the smudge tool to spread out the flames and
the glow as you wish - you should end up with something
like the image on the right.
emission spectrum in the image is from sodium. Off to the
left of the frame is a sodium street lamp. It is doing
two jobs here:
Firstly, of all, it is illuminating the
steam and smoke from the fire; and,
Secondly, it is casting an interference pattern across
the image in a series of feint, concentric circles that
you can see if you look carefully at the image on the
right (the top one is straight from the image and the
bottom one is enhanced to some degree).
You can get a pattern like this quite simply with the
GIMP by editing a gradient pattern so that it has a
sinusoidal blending function and then creating the
grading fill in a new layer using a radial gradient,
dragging the mouse over only a short distance and
allowing the GIMP to repeat the pattern for you.
there is a flames.xcf.gz file that you can see on the
right. You can load this into the GIMP and have a play
around with it.
If you select the layer with the
emission spectrum in it (green for copper in this case -
pure, saturated green (#00ff00)), you can use the
hue/saturation tool to change the element.
Migrating machines - recovering passwords
have just migrated to a new machine, it is fairly likely
that the last time you typed in your ISP account
passwords was so long ago that you cannot remember what
they were - you will need them so that you can access
your email via your POP3 account and you probably won't
be able to find that scrap of paper that you wrote them
down on several years ago (not that you should have done
that in the first place).
Your passwords will be encrypted wherever they are
stored on your hard drive so, unless you know a program
that you can use to crack them, you have a bit of a
But there is an easy way. All you need to do is to
load KNOPPIX into the CD/DVD drive of your new computer
and plug the Ethernet connection into the back of your
Internet router along with your old machine.
Now, boot up the machine with KNOPPIX on it and it
will load into your RAM without writing anything to your
up a root console and enter 'ethereal' -- the menus are
pretty much the same as on Windows XP so they are fairly
easy to find. The reason you need to do this from a root
console is that you are going to listen in on the network
which is a privileged action and normal users aren't
allowed to do this.
now have Ethereal up and running as root. Next, you need
to capture the traffic on your network in what is called
Click on 'Capture' and then
Capture Options dialogue box, everything should be set
pretty much as you would need it any way so just click on
| Once all
of this is in action, just run your email program and
your password will be passed across the network in the
Ethereal will pick this up and you will be able
to read it. Once you have sent/received your email, click
will now perform any calculations that need doing and
display it similar to the display on the right.
should now be able to select a packet by clicking on it
(look for one with 'POP3' in it) and then right-click on
it and follow the stream.
now get something like the one on the right, with the
whole conversation colour coded so that you can see which
machine is talking (this screenshot is from a different
machine but it still uses Ethereal to do what is
If your mail connection is encrypted,
you should be able to select an unencrypted version to do
this with but once you have your passwords, you should
then be able to change them to new ones - something that
you should do straight away.
Infuriatingly incomplete dictionaries
If you use a particularly esoteric branch of English
(say you work in a chromatography lab), you will be
infuriated by the average spell checker's absence of
knowledge when it comes to words in your field. But then,
why should it know that 'Janak'
(pronounced 'Yanak') is a primary chromatographic method
used in cracking plant laboratories for the analysis of
short chain aliphatic hydrocarbons from C0 to
C4 inclusive and involves passing a carbon
dioxide carrier gas down a molecular sieve column and
absorbing the column's eluant in a potassium hydroxide
solution in a special, inverted burette with an
adjustable thistle funnel and therefore is a correctly
spelled word? (Don't get me started on Zeisel analysis of
checkers originally came out (my first one was for the
Sinclair QL in the mid 1980s), they were deemed as the
end of people being able to spell. As word processing on
the PC became something that happened whilst you were
typing rather than something that happened at the end, it
became a game that you would deliberately spell a word
correctly so as to spite the spell checker - every
correctly spelled word was a battle won. However, spell
checkers are not complete.
Unfortunately, English is comprised of many ways of
saying the same thing - it is manifestly clear that this
is patently obvious - if you get my point. As a result,
when you add up all of the variants of words that we use,
the total runs into several million words. In everyday
language, people tend to use around 40,000 words which
means that they are only ever likely to use around one
per cent of a truly complete dictionary.
Looking at it another way, you will have all of that
memory sitting there, with data in it and only around 1
per cent of it will be used. Of course, you could argue
that as almost everybody completes all of the word
processing work that they are ever likely to do by using
only 1 per cent of the capabilities of a word processor
such as MS Word, this is already a principle that is
Another way of looking at it is that with so many ways
to type in the wrong word, the end-users will be spoilt
for choice when it comes to selecting the right one.
Possibly for the reason that people don't bother to
pronounce words properly, there are a number of words
that people have no idea about such as:
- 'secetry' instead of 'secretary';
- 'vetenry' instead of 'veterinary';
- 'transportation' instead of 'transport (do we
still send convicts to Australia?);
- 'appliance' instead of 'application' (thank you
Zanussi); and, so on.
Then, there are words that are spelled the same but
have different meanings (therefore leading the user to
think that there should be two different spellings) such
- 'Periodic' as in 'periodic acid' and 'periodic
table'. Periodic acid is a 'per' acid containing
iodine and is pronounced like 'pear I ode ic'
whereas the periodic table has a resonant nature
and describes how the properties of elements are
defined by the outer shells of electrons going
repeatedly through a cycle from metallic (ionic)
properties through to halides (covalent) and then
to noble gasses, then around again.
- Another is 'unionise' as in: to enrol a group of
employees into a union ('union-ise'); or, to stop
a substance from being ionic (such as vaporising
hydrochloric acid - this is only an acid (and
ionised) when it is in a solution, when it is in
the vapour state, it is a covalent gas)
Being stuck with a semi-literate user population that
is influenced by Americanised English and likely to click
on the first alternative spelling they see because they
don't know any better, the best you can do when you have
installed your new word processor is to write a document
that you know contains all of the correct spellings for
your own field of work and then add them to your custom
Connect with Curl
Sometimes, if you are trying to find out what
information is being exchanged when you connect to a http
server, clicking on document properties in a browser is
just not good enough - at best this only gives a summary
of what actually occurred.
only saves the file that was requested and whilst it
keeps the original file's date/time stamp, it still only
saves the file and optionally a log which still might not
provide the information you need.
Curl is a client to get documents and files from a
server (although it can send them as well) and can work
with a number of protocols.
There are many options with curl and to see them all,
use 'man curl'
To see a full ascii trace dump to STDOUT, use the
'--trace-ascii' switch and to see more of the data that
is exchanged between the client and the server, use the
So, if you want to know what, for example, Google's
server does, enter...
curl -v --trace-ascii - http://www.google.com/
...and see what happens.
Mogrify your images
If you have hundreds of thumbnail images to create or
you want to update a collection of thumbnails
automatically using a program such as a Perl script, you
need a program that does the job perfectly (none of that
messing around with GUI program rubbish - we're talking
about good old efficient command line stuff here that you
can get your computer to do for you without any
supervision using a crontab at 4am on a Sunday morning).
So, you have your photographs - say they all start
with 'sa' as they do in the screenshot - and they live in
the directory you want them to be in.
Open up a
console in the directory containing your originals and
...to make a subdirectory for the thumb-sized copies
you are going to create. (it doesn't have to be called
'thumbs', you can call it anything you like). You can
type 'l' to see the listing of the files.
Next, copy your images (which here, all start with
'sa') into your 'thumbs' directory by typing...
cp sa* thumbs
.. and then...
...to go into it. If you type 'l', you can see your
mogrify -resize 100x75 sa*.jpg'
to create your small images - note that this
overwrites the originals in the thumbs directory (which
is why we copied them to here in the first place)
although you can use options with mogrify to make it
write new ones.
If you just type 'l' again you will see the file sizes
of the new files.
Konqueror file browser, you can right-click on an image
file and click on properties. Under the 'Meta Info' tab,
you can see the dimensions for the new image as being 100
x 75 pixels.
In the screenshot on the right, you can
see just from the file sizes that the new files in the
'thumbs' directory are a lot smaller, having been
processed by mogrify.
allow you to see the sort of quality you can get from
this program, I have assembled a web page of the
thumbnails that you can click on to show the original it
was derived from in the window below on the page. Just click here
to open it up in a new window.
You can, of course,
write a Perl script that not only mogrifies any new
images that you give to it but also updates a web page
that displays them - see the 'unicodegen' file mentioned
Bathtub failure model
If you've just bought a new computer and wonder how
long you should leave it before reformatting the old one
then you shouldn't put too much weight onto the MTBF
value - especially when deciding that the new one has
been going long enough for you to be confident enough in
it to format the old machine and use it for something
else (such as a home network file server).
There are a number of things that can make a new
computer (or anything for that matter) fail at a given
time. At the beginning of its life, it is most likely to
fail because of poor workmanship or material defects -
this is given the poor-taste name 'infant mortality'
As time goes on, parts start to fail because they wear
out - the time between these two types of failure is
called the 'useful life'.
see from the diagram on the right that the resulting
curve from the sum of these effects has the shape of a
bathtub and is actually called the 'bathtub failure
model'. Infant mortalities are (or at least should be)
unacceptable for the companies that build computers
because they produce the 'dead on arrival' stories that
we read about so often in magazines. However, it is
fairly easy for a company to remove these failures to a
large extent by 'soak-testing' them (aka 'burn-in') once
they are built. This soak-testing should take the
computer through a large portion of the infant mortality
period and hopefully, the end user is sold a machine that
will not fail until components wear out some years later
(hint: look at the length of the warranty for a clue as
to how long this is).
The MTBF is the 'Mean Time Between Failures' and is
often misinterpreted as the amount of time it will take
for a component (such as a disc drive) to fail through
old age. The MTBF applies to the normal life (roughly
flat) part of the curve and is 1/failure rate. As a
result, it can have values of 500,000 hours whereas the
hard drive will have worn out through old age well before
the end of this 57 years. A MTBF of 500,000 hours only
means that 1.75 per cent of your drives will fail each
year during the 'useful life' part of its use. Long
before the 57 years is up however, the wear-out failure
mode soon becomes dominant with its own, higher failure
rate. It would, in all honesty, be more useful if the
manufacturers gave you the time that the wear-out failure
rate overtook the normal life failure rate as this is
when you want to budget for replacing machines.
So, is there a set time when you can reformat your old
machine? No is the answer. All you can do is to make sure
that you have an additional backup (remember that it is
not a back-up unless there are two copies) of your data
and keep the old one going until you feel confident that
all of your favourite programs work on the new one.
The Registry - time to go
Many years ago, Windows file systems used FAT (File
Allocation Table) and over the years, Windows grew and
grew, as did the hard drives. One of the limitations of
FAT is that there are only a certain number of files that
you can save (as there are with any file system although
the number was lower with FAT) and as the storage devices
get bigger, the clusters (effectively a number of
contiguous blocks that forms the smallest usage of disk
space a file can have) grow out of all proportion (a
64kByte cluster to hold a 100byte file). In effect, most
of the drive space is wasted if you have a lot of small
So, if you have a lot of programs and each needs a
small configuration file (some of this data might be
values relating to the position on the screen of a window
and some of it might be important information that is
critical to the running of the whole system and only the
admin account should really have access to it), you are
soon going to run out of space.
solution to this (or at least the most rational
explanation for this) was the creation of the Registry.
This is a single file that can store all of the really
important information that the system needs in order to
function properly as well as that equally important
information of where on the screen the minesweeper game
was when it was played last. Why are these equally
important? Simply because either of them can corrupt the
other's data simply because it is all stored in the same
So, file systems move on and now, we have some systems
that will use single blocks (usually 512Bytes) rather
than clusters of them (for example, a 2.1GB HDD with
FAT32 will have 4kB clusters so a 1 byte file will take
up 4kB of disc space and on average, 2kB will be lost for
each file that is saved).
However, there are some things that file system
developers can do to make file systems more effective.
Some file systems will nominally divide a block into a
number of divisions so that the last block used can have
some of the space used by files that are less than a
block long (actually, if you have 4 sub-blocks in a
block, you can only save files that are less than 3
blocks long in this way if you think about it). NTFS
partially supports block sub-allocation so it is getting
part of the way there. One thing to note is that if a
file is more than one block long, it has been found to be
more efficient if that file starts at the beginning of a
block (as in the diagram) - the end can still be packed
if the file system's disc utilisation allows it. One
limitation is that if you only have 4 sub-blocks per
block, you can only store 4 files in each block.
A further improvement on this is 'tail-packing' where
effectively the minimum sub-block size is 1 byte. In this
way, if your block size is 4kBytes long, you can store
40x100 byte files if you want. This is the most efficient
as you can read many files at the same time if they are
all in the same block - such as a load of gif files in
the case of a web server or a load of config files. Tail
packing is used in ReiserFS and in Reiser4 thus making
them fast and efficient - suitable both for home machines
and web servers.
So, if the Registry is, in effect, a single point of
failure, why are we still using it?
Clean your printer
When cheaper printers break, it is often easier
(although environmentally reprehensible) to replace the
However, if you have a good quality office printer,
you could well be looking at a machine that is getting on
for 10 years old.
bathtub failure model (see above), a machine that is this
age is clearly starting to wear out and might not be
picking up sheets of paper as easily as it used to.
However, not all is lost.
Cleaning older printers is often more like gardening
than IT - there are piles of dried out ink and snow
drifts of paper powder as well as loads of dust. In
addition to this, the rubber that the wheels are made
from is approaching the end of its useful life (might
only be another five years in it so get saving for your
There is, however, one wheel that is more important
than the others and that is the one that takes up the
All you need to do is dismantle the front of the
machine (with this Hewlett Packard, it is just a matter
of reaching under the front of the paper delivery unit at
the front and squeezing a pair of levers together
sideways then pulling the unit out), exposing the wheels
as in the photograph.
Next hold down the form feed button. You should be
able to see the wheel as the one with all of the extra
levers and springs on it.
Whilst it is moving, push a wet kitchen cloth up
against it several times to remove the gunge (although
you should be ready to pull the plug on it should
something go wrong such as you get something trapped in
there - remember that they are strong).
Don't use anything stronger than water because this
could damage the rubber.
Reassemble the printer and it should work better. You
could get another five years out of your printer.
Warning - Hardware peripherals - Taking Care
Workstation peripherals such as drinks and bags of
crisps are without doubt essentials - how else could we
computer programmers and journalists maintain our
However, with the case of Donoghue v Stephenson
( AC 562) and reasonable foreseeability in mind, it
could only be negligent if we failed to pass on the
following advice (but substituting the snail)...
If you are in the habit of leaving your orange juice
in a mug next to your computer so that - like your work -
you can come back the following day to complete it,
always look in it before you drink it, or better still,
just throw it away.
Otherwise, you might end up drinking some hapless
insect (such as a Cranefly) as I nearly just did.
Who said that computer journalism wasn't dangerous?
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